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Egyptian history is rich with evidence of following the tradition as a cacred and also the freedom to create the new and the different. To avoid redundance, A link is added at the end of the article to Tradition and Variation by Alexander Badawy covering textual evidences on archism and Innovation in Egyptian architecture

'I did not imitate that which had been done before'
Architect. Amenhotep Hapu

My chief nobility was that I executed a cliff tomb, as a man should imitate what his father does '' Prince Khnumhotep II. A.B-p 140

What stays and what changes?

Throughout the whole duration of the monarchy, the only variations in the cornice were in the degree of skill of the execution of its curve, in its proportions, and in its decorative accessories. During the early dynasties, the sole decoration consisted of tricoloured bands and of scrolled ribbons on the torus. It was in the period of the 12th Dynasty that the winged globe, symbol of Hat, the lord of heaven and the good god, appearcd. [..] The uraei which flank it often wear the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. A little later, during the 19th Dynasty, the bands trace on the concave moulding a type of triglyph whose metopes contain one or two cartouches, also sometimes flanked with uraei. It was also at around this time that the cornices were crowned with a series of uraei bearing the solar globe on their head. Finally, in the reign of Nectancbo (30th Dynasty), a series of hawks is sometimes found crowning the cornice instead of the customary uraei.

The Middle Kingdom changed the face of the pharaoh. Although still in some sense idealized, the physiognomy of Twelfth-Dynasty kings reflects more of their humanity than earlier rulers. The reaction of the probably small number of people allowed to see statues, such as this one of Amenemhat III, is unknown.

The middle kingdom c.2055 - 1550 BCE1

Kunst und Architektur ändern sich, wenn sich die Religion ändert. Alle Kunst, alle Architektur?

Die Phase der Amarna-Kunst. nach Philipp Vandenberg

Die Epoche der Amarna-Kunst umfasste kaum zwei Jahrzehnte und läßt sich in vier Entwicklungsstufen einteilen. Doch der neue Stil, den Echnaton und Nofretete Kreieten, soltte mehr sein als eine bloß künstliche Revolution, zweifellos sollte er auch ihren neuen Weltbegriff veranschaulichen und als Mittel religiöser Propaganda eingesetzt werden. Jahrtausende hatten die Ägypter eine Vielzahl von Göttern angebetet, jetzt sollte es nur noch einen Gott geben

Unknown artist, bust of Prince Ankhhaf, Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, reign of Khafra, 2520-2494 BCE

Painted limestone. Harvard University–Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition.

Perhaps the most realistic portrait preserved

Figurenfragment: Frau mit Kind

Kalkstein Höhe 10,4 cm, Breite 7,1 cm, Tiefe 4,3 cm Giza, Westfriedhof, im Sand bei Grab D 37 Altes Reich, 5.-6. Dynastie, um 2400-2300 v. Chr. Leipzig, ÄMUL 2446

Individuell geprägte, von kanonischen Vorgaben ab-weichende Darstellungen von Mutter und Kind sind äußerst selten; nur der untere Teil der stehenden Frauenfigur ist erhalten, doch kann man noch erken-nen, dass sie ihr Kind auf der Hüfte trug

What is the Tradition and Variation in Moden Egypt ?

Mostafa Fahmy the architect behind the muselum of Saad is a curious charachter for me, I do not know much of the man, what motivates him for such a style. was he also occupied with the search for the lost identity? a thing that does not really differ from many of his contomperaries. Tomb of Saad, his design, it is a mixtuer of the old Egyptian with the classical europian. why the europian ? I was about to accuse the man of trying to get rid of the so called Islamic-disgrace, but in fact his very first design of the muselum was core islamic It is a nice breeze on sunday evening in Würzburg; and a point to start with is: Egypt hast no instutional or gvernmental plan to revive the Egyptian hertiage

What have been built so far is individual endavoures. The more the power, the bigger the scale. looking at the Tomb of Saad as a demonstration of the power and influence versteckt dahinter. The fact that the revival was so far part of the personal dreams of indivuals means that the variation and tradion in jedem Stück soll isoliert wurden; jedes stück von der andere.


Page 73 Ancient Egypt. Campbell Price



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